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Ophthalmology in Russia

The first information about “full-time masters” – eye doctors belong to the 17th century. In 1805, the first hospital in Russia was opened in Moscow for the treatment of those with eye problems and even those who lost their sight, organized and headed by F. A. Guildenbrandt. In 1818, the first department of eye diseases at the Medical and Surgical Academy was opened in St. Petersburg, in 1824 – an eye clinic; in 1826 an eye hospital was founded in Moscow (both hospitals still exist). Particular attention was paid to the fight against diseases of great social importance (trachoma, injuries, etc.). In the USSR, trachoma is almost eliminated as a mass disease. The effectiveness of drug and surgical treatment of glaucoma has greatly improved; special clinics conduct preventive examinations of the population for the earliest possible detection and successful treatment of this disease. Dramatically reduced occupational eye injuries. Tuberculosis and infectious eye diseases are successfully cured. A number of research ophthalmological institutes have been created, and specialization and advanced training of ophthalmologists are carried out at the institutes for the improvement of doctors.

In the 20th century, ophthalmology was enriched with new methods of instrumental diagnostics: biomicroscopy, X-ray of the eye and orbit with X-ray localization of foreign bodies, electrodiagnostics, isotopic diagnosis of eye tumors, fluorescence angiography. Significantly improved methods for correcting refractive errors. In addition to ordinary glasses, anastigmatic and contact lenses, telescopic glasses are introduced into practice. New therapeutic agents are effective (sulfonamides, antibiotics, hormonal drugs). Corneal transplant operations have been developed for retinal detachment, photocoagulation with intraocular tumors, and much more.

In the 2nd half of the 20th century, laser therapy, eye operations under a microscope (eye microsurgery) were introduced into practice. Republican and All-Union congresses are convened periodically on the development of the most pressing issues of ophthalmology.

Professionally important qualities.

The profession of an ophthalmologist bears a huge responsibility, the ability to work with hands, well-developed fine motor skills, accuracy. An ophthalmologist should also have fine visual and tactile sensitivity, the ability to work in stressful conditions, good memory, analytical thinking, psycho-emotional poise, high concentration of attention and good endurance.

And also in connection with the rapid development of science and technology, an ophthalmologist needs a willingness to constantly learn.

Knowledge and skills

An ophthalmologist must know the physiology and anatomy of the organs of vision with confidence, have methods and methods of diagnosis and treatment, and know the symptoms of other diseases that cause eye complications. In addition to good knowledge about eye diseases, an ophthalmologist should be free to navigate in general medical matters, since eye diseases are often the result of diseases such as hypertension, kidney disease, etc.

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